Martin L. Yarmush's Biotechnology for Biomedical Engineers PDF

By Martin L. Yarmush

ISBN-10: 0203009037

ISBN-13: 9780203009031

ISBN-10: 0849318114

ISBN-13: 9780849318115

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Perception, therefore, could be considered to be an interaction between sensory inputs and past experience in the form of templates stored in the memory of the perceiver and specific to the perceiver’s needs. With this approach, the neural nets and ensembles of nets under observation generate patterns that describe their thinking and memory properties. The normal flow of information is reversed and controls the afferent systems. The perception processes as well as feature extraction or suppression of images or objects can be ascribed to specific neural mechanisms due to some sensory input or even due to some “wishful thinking” of the PRD.

The spatial distribution of input is often not random but systematically restricted. This increase is due to a phenomenon called facilitation. If the response lasts longer than the interval between impulses, such that the second response rises from the residue of the first, then it is temporal summation. If, in addition, the response increment due to the second stimulus is larger than the preceding one, then it is facilitation. Facilitation is an important function of the nervous system and is found in quite different forms and durations ranging from a few milliseconds to tenths of seconds.

Facilitation may grade from forms of sensitization to learning, especially at long intervals. A special case is the socalled posttetanic potentiation that is the result of highfrequency stimulation for long periods of time (about 10 seconds). This is an interesting case, since no effects can be seen during stimulation, but afterwards, any test stimulus at various intervals creates a marked increase in response up to many times more than the “tetanic” stimulus. Antifacilitation is the phenomenon where a decrease of response from the neuron is observed at certain junctions due to successive impulses.

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Biotechnology for Biomedical Engineers by Martin L. Yarmush

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