By Hamilton Cravens
Among the Twenties and the Fifties, the kid welfare circulate that had originated as an ethical reform attempt within the revolutionary period developed into the technology of kid improvement. In earlier than Head begin, Hamilton Cravens chronicles this change, either at the nationwide point and from the point of view of the field's best-known learn middle, the college of Iowa's baby Welfare learn Station. Addressing the altering position performed by means of girls and the significance of Rockefeller philanthropy, he exhibits how a women's reform circulate turned a male-dominated, conservative career and demonstrates how lay strain teams can impression the buildings and tactics of technological know-how. lively by way of the reformist ambitions of the kid welfare circulate, scientists on the Iowa Station challenged the pervasive concept that an individual's improvement was firm by way of such staff qualities as race, category, and gender. in its place, their examine urged that early social intervention may possibly rescue a toddler from a grim destiny. Cravens argues that this individualistic point of view, rejected within the Nineteen Forties by means of a systematic group that reflected society's deterministic notions, expected the nationwide social reforms of the post-1950s period, together with Head commence.
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Additional info for Before Head Start: the Iowa Station & America's children
By the time of the Des Moines meeting, the fourth in the NCM's history, Mrs. Birney had attracted the support of Phoebe Hearst, the wealthy California philanthropist, for all the apparatus of a national organization, including funds for a national headquarters, a newsletter, an office staff, supplies, not to mention the costs of the NCM's annual meetings. The NCM had affiliates in perhaps twenty states. But these organizations, like the national office, were still essentially paper institutionsthe creation of little clutches of determined individuals, not masses of members, in each of the union's commonwealths.
In the 1880s she began publishing works on women's property rights; in the mid-1890s she published noted books on such questions as the rights of women, the importance of motherhood, socialism and the individual, and related social questions. Page 2 She was not afraid to express views that offended bourgeois or middle-class cultural sensibilities. Thus she believed that neither Christianity nor the traditional family would necessarily aid child welfare and racial progress. In The Century of the Child, she attacked conventional expectations of marriage and sex roles.
1 Many educated women in Europe and America probably agreed with Key's prediction. Indeed, women seemed poised in several Western countries to push for the expansion of the powers of the state to assist "racial" progress, most commonly through child welfare, or what we would term the welfare state as it applied to women, children, and the family. In that sense, Key was fully in the mainstream of her time. And her notions of breeding a better racepopular eugenics, one might saywere less unusual among turn-of-the-century female activists than might be imagined.
Before Head Start: the Iowa Station & America's children by Hamilton Cravens