By Herbert N. Foerstel
From colonial occasions to the current, the media in the US has been topic to censorship demanding situations and rules. This complete reference consultant to media censorship offers in-depth insurance of every media format―newspapers, magazines, movies, radio, tv, and the Internet―all of which were, and stay, battlegrounds for First modification matters. every one media structure is tested in-depth, from its origins and heritage via its sleek improvement, and lines dialogue of landmark incidents and instances. Foerstel, writer of Banned within the U.S.A., the acclaimed reference consultant to ebook censorship in faculties and public libraries, bargains a short heritage of media censorship, examines in-depth the drama of 7 landmark incidents, and contains 31 proper lawsuits. Complementing the quantity are own interviews with sought after sufferers of media censorship, who supply human voice to the fight of the media to stay unfastened, and an exam of censorship of the scholar press.
Fascinating examples of media censorship abound, from Peter Zenger's prerevolutionary trial for seditious libel to the fashionable tobacco industry's invocation of tortious interference to silence tv information and the present rash of net censorship incidents. bankruptcy 1 deals a short historical past of censorship of every of the media kinds. bankruptcy 2 good points indepth research of 7 landmark media censorship incidents: the trial of John Peter Zenger, H. L. Mencken and the hatrack case, John Henry Faulk and the radio blacklist, revolutionary magazine's expos^D'e at the H-bomb mystery, govt labeling of 3 documentary motion pictures as political propaganda, television's tobacco wars, and Carnegie Mellon's try to censor scholars' entry to the web. bankruptcy three examines 31 media censorship complaints from 1735 to 1997. bankruptcy four good points unique interviews with media figures considering censorship concerns or cases―Paul Jarrico, Howard Morland, Peter Sussman, Daniel Schorr, Walter Cronkite, and Jerry Berman. Appendix A takes a glance at censorship and reaction in regards to the pupil press throughout the Nineties, after the landmark Hazelwood determination in 1988―an very important subject for college kids in each highschool. Appendix B includes a source checklist of media advocacy and censorship agencies. a particular bibliography of books and digital assets completes the textual content. This quantity is of curiosity to school and faculty scholars, lecturers, librarians and students, and all those who find themselves tormented by those the most important First modification issues.
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Extra info for Banned in the Media: A Reference Guide to Censorship in the Press, Motion Pictures, Broadcasting, and the Internet
41 By 1930 broadcasters had taken it upon themselves to ensure that all programming was inoffensive. Every possible un-American ingredient, from bolshevism to atheism to sex, was censored. The mere mention of sex, even in the driest, most academic discussion, was forbidden. ’’42 In the early 1930s, when the Prohibition Amendment to the Constitution banned the sale of alcoholic beverages, discussion of Prohibition was itself prohibited on virtually every radio station. Among the antiprohibition speakers barred from radio were ex-Senator James Wadsworth and Mrs.
In 1916 a New York State censorship bill was passed, and only a veto by the governor prevented its implementation. In 1916 the National Board of Censorship changed its name to the National Board of Review, claiming its purpose was to improve public A Brief History of Media Censorship • 19 taste through film selection rather than overt censorship of films. In 1918 the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry voted for self-censorship, adopting a code of standards which specified subjects and situations unacceptable for motion pictures.
Foreign films, A Brief History of Media Censorship • 23 unencumbered with American political censorship, began to recapture the interest of the American public. The American film industry suffered from other problems as well. Until 1950 almost all theaters were owned by the producers. Only their films were widely shown, and close cooperation between the producers, the Code Administration and the American Legion ensured a wellcontrolled content. Then, in 1950, this censorship system was shaken by a Supreme Court ruling in United States v.
Banned in the Media: A Reference Guide to Censorship in the Press, Motion Pictures, Broadcasting, and the Internet by Herbert N. Foerstel