By James Dobbins
A virtually 50-year evaluation of U.S. efforts to rework defeated and damaged enemies into democratic and wealthy allies.
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Extra info for America's role in nation-building: from Germany to Iraq, Issue 1753
______________ 36This section draws heavily on Killick (1997), pp. 114–117. Germany 21 • Defeated countries often need sizable transfers to cover basic government expenditures and quickly provide humanitarian assistance after the conflict. • Reparations immediately after the end of the conflict are counterproductive. The economy must grow before a country can compensate the victims of the conflict. • Permitting more than one power to determine economic policy can significantly delay economic recovery.
In August 1945, the Allied occupying powers met in London and signed an agreement creating the Nuremberg Tribunal, officially entitled the International Military Tribunal. The London Charter set the ground rules for the Tribunal. In early October 1945, the Allies issued an indictment against 24 men, charging them with the systematic murder of millions of people and with planning and carrying out the war in Europe. With two of the indicted dead or missing and one too frail to stand trail, 21 defendants were tried in Nuremberg beginning in November 1945.
Germany 13 they came in the form of “credits” from the recipient countries. At the time, these were of dubious value. The total number of German refugees was estimated at 15 million at the end of 1945. They consisted primarily of Germans who had been expelled or had fled from East Germany, German territories awarded to Poland and the Soviet Union, and traditional German areas throughout Central and Eastern Europe. 23 The FRG continued to receive refugees throughout the post–World War II period.
America's role in nation-building: from Germany to Iraq, Issue 1753 by James Dobbins