Download PDF by Mir Bahmanyar: Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004: Mountain strongholds

By Mir Bahmanyar

ISBN-10: 184176776X

ISBN-13: 9781841767765

Following the Soviet invasion in 1979, the Mujahideen defenders of Afghanistan built and strengthened many typical cave structures to exploit as offer bases and shielding positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda additional bolstered those positions within the Nineties. Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, those cave platforms have once again come to prominence and websites corresponding to Tora Bora and Zhawar Kili have featured in information headlines world wide. This name presents an research of those caves and underground platforms, and discusses the U.S.-led Coalition's tactical method of dislodging the enemy from those fortified positions.

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Read Online or Download Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004: Mountain strongholds of the Mujahideen, Taliban & Al Qaeda (Fortress, Volume 26) PDF

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Extra info for Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004: Mountain strongholds of the Mujahideen, Taliban & Al Qaeda (Fortress, Volume 26)

Example text

5mm machine guns caused from 50 to 70 percent of helicopter losses and damage, and from 40 to 50 percent of aircraft losses and damage. Also in limited use were Swiss 20mm Oerlikon antiaircraft guns and the Soviet-made self-propelled, four-barrel 23mm ZSU-23-4 automatic gun system known as Shilka, which is still used by the Taliban and the Northern Alliance. For better protection of their fortified bases and strongholds, enemy forces established a local early warning system that consisted of a net of observation posts.

There are other ways of moving such as the Diamond formation—a lead man, two flankers and rear security. qxd 11/3/09 12:35 Page 31 Cave-clearing techniques Although few large complex cave/tunnel complexes exist, the fact still remains that the infantry must clear or destroy such obstacles when encountered. Tunnel clearing, no matter the size of the actual complex, requires specialized training, as it is both arduous and nerve-racking. It requires confidence in training, equipment and teammates.

Qxd 11/3/09 12:36 Page 38 Defensive operations The Mujahideen/Taliban/Al Qaeda A declassified study commissioned by the Central Intelligence Agency on the lessons learned in Afghanistan serves as an excellent example of the type of warfare waged both against the Soviet and Coalition forces there by the Mujahideen. Many of the strengths of the Mujahideen are intrinsic to insurgency warfare. That is, their conduct of the war is very similar to that used historically by insurgency groups in Vietnam or Algeria.

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Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004: Mountain strongholds of the Mujahideen, Taliban & Al Qaeda (Fortress, Volume 26) by Mir Bahmanyar

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