By Joel Bellassen, Zhang Pengpeng, Joel Bellasen
This introductory path not just serves as a textbook but in addition as a advisor which, via a number of routes (etymology, semantics, linguistics, portraits and culture), may help imagine in chinese language. the purpose of this path is to provide the chinese because it is: an international of indicators with their starting place and the common sense in their composition, represented by way of the main often used ones. The four hundred characters featured in quantity 1 will help you realize not less than 70% of the characters utilized in books and newspapers.
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Extra info for A Key to Chinese Speech and Writing: Vol. I
In this sense, fluency encompasses control of the acquired knowledge with broad respect for intended meanings. In turn, Bachman’s model of communicative language ability in communicative language use combines language knowledge with strategic competence. Strategic competence in the positive sense is the ability to compensate for the linguistic deficiencies in the achievement of the communicative goal, that is, conveying the intended meaning (Faerch & Kasper, 1983). Positive strategic behaviour leads to the achievement of the communicative goal while the negative strategic behaviour means avoiding difficulties or transferring the responsibility to the interlocutor.
10. 12:32 PM Page 22 Input for Instructed L2 Learners recasts are less common because it is usually considered impolite to correct interlocutors’ errors. Alertness is considered to be a ‘general readiness to deal with incoming stimuli or data’ (Robinson, 1995: 295). Orientation is claimed to be based on expectations of what the stimuli might refer to, and detection is a focus on a specific piece of information. Swain and Lapkin (1998) studied the construction of a story by two learners, and Parks and Maquire (1999) observed how non-native nurses collaborated with their supervisors and co-workers, in consequence producing highly collaborative pieces of writing.
Some learners are at a loss as to what they are supposed to do/say and give up their parts to more active and/or proficient friends, who assume the role of group leaders [. ] and monopolize the floor. Some learners switch to their native language [L1], while others use incorrect and/or inappropriate language. [. ] Teachers have been made to believe that learners themselves possess sufficient FL [L2] resources, which can be activated by merely engaging them . in communicative activities. (Nizegorodcew, 1995: 276) Fluency and Accuracy Practice in the L2 Classroom Let me now turn to those areas of L2 teaching where there is perhaps the greatest tension between what was considered traditionally the focus of L2 instruction, that is, L2 teaching according to a linguistic description (pronunciation, morphosyntactic rules, lexicon) combined with an idealised native-like model of L2 use, and what CLT (even in its weak version) has considered its main focus, that is, L2 development through communication in classroom situations.
A Key to Chinese Speech and Writing: Vol. I by Joel Bellassen, Zhang Pengpeng, Joel Bellasen